All About Dry Eyes: The Causes, Effects, and Prevention of Dry Eyes


The condition of dry eyes is chronic and progressive. Depending on its cause and severity, it may not even be curable in some people. It can be managed, resulting in eye comfort, sharper vision, and fewer dry eye symptoms. 


Dry eyes occur when tears are not able to provide adequate lubrication for your eyes either because they do not produce enough of them or because they are of poor quality. Dry eyes is often caused by dry environments, computer use, reading, schoolwork, and other close viewing situations that require focus for lengthy periods of time.  In this way, you may only experience dry eyes in certain situations/ environments such as on airplanes, in air-conditioned rooms, riding bikes, or looking at screens. 

Different things cause different dry eye symptoms. Environmental stressors such as wind, smoke, and dry air can be causes of increased tear evaporation whereas decreased or poor quality tear production can be caused by aging, medical conditions, side effects of medications, and/or tear duct damage from inflammation. 


If you experience dry eyes, you may feel:


      Stinging or burning sensations

      Stringy mucus in or around your eyes

      Sensitivity to light

      Eye redness

      Sensation of having something in your eyes

      Difficulty wearing contact lenses

      Difficulty driving at night

      Watery eyes (the body’s response to irritation of dry eyes, different from tear production)

      Blurred vision or eye fatigue

      Itchy eyes

      Heavy eyes

      Sore eyes


You can prevent the symptoms of dry eyes by:

      Avoid air blowing into your eyes

      Adding moisture to the air

      Wearing wraparound sunglasses or other protective eyewear

      Taking breaks during long, focused tasks

      Being aware of your environment

      Positioning your computer screen below eye level

      Stop smoking and avoid smoke

      Use artificial tears regularly

When To See a Doctor

See a doctor if you are suffering from these dry eye symptoms and experiencing extreme discomfort and pain. Your optometrist can help you determine the best way to fix your dry eye problem and/or refer you to a specialist if necessary. 

Don’t struggle through the discomfort of dry eyes. This article and your optometrist can help you understand the condition better in order to get appropriate treatment. If you are looking for an Eye Clinic that prioritizes eye health, call us at one of our locations to book an appointment and we’ll be happy to assist you. 




Eye care is often overlooked as an unnecessary component to our overall health. This is usually the case due to lack of education about the importance of eye health care. The article below compiles expert information from Dr. D’Orio Eye Care, Optometrist and Eye Care Specialist Clinic in North York and Toronto, to help you care for your eyes.

Do not underestimate the importance of wearing sunglasses throughout the year.  Although the sun is bright in the summer, it is equally as bright in the winter as it reflects off of snow and wet surfaces. Regardless of temperature or of how bright it may seem outside, dangerous rays are constantly emitted from the sun and your eyes should be protected from them at all times.

Not all sunglasses are created equal. Some sunglasses are less effective at protecting against UVA and UVB rays than others. Opt for sunglasses that advertise and promote blocking close to 100% of UVA and UVB rays. Although this may come at a higher price tag, your eyes will thank you for it.

Always wear your sunglasses in outdoor environments in order to also protect you from overexposure to ultraviolet (UVA and UVB) light. Ultraviolet light can lead to cataracts and/or macular degeneration.  This deteriorates your overall eye health. Keep in mind that even if your contact lenses claim UVA and UVB protection, you should still wear sunglasses for protection. Aim for 100% coverage!

Try wearing polarized lenses if you drive a lot or have particularly sensitive eyes. Polarized lenses reduce the amount of light in half, therefore providing relief for your eyes.

Get your eyes checked regularly. If you have particularly poor eye health or bad eyesight, consider visiting your optometrist more frequently in order to spot and/or prevent issues as you age.

With these tips and the guidance of the Eye Care Specialists and Optometrists at Dr. D’Orio Eye Care, you can adequately care for your eyes and maintain or improve their overall health. If you are looking for an Eye Clinic that prioritizes eye health, call us at one of our locations to book an appointment and we’ll be happy to assist you.



Age- Related Macular Disease is a common eye condition and a leading cause of vision loss among people aged 50 and above. ARMD is caused due to the deterioration of the macula, which is the small central area of the retina.

ARMD does not lead to complete blindness. However, the loss of central vision can interfere with simple everyday activities, such as the ability to see faces, drive, read, write, or do close work, such as cooking or fixing things around the house.

Macular degeneration is diagnosed as either dry (non-neovascular) or wet (neovascular). Neovascular refers to the growth of new blood vessels in an area, such as the macula, where they are not supposed to be.

The dry form of ARMD is more common than the wet form, with about 85 to 90 percent of AMD patients diagnosed with dry AMD. The wet form of the disease usually leads to more serious vision loss.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is caused by a number of genetic factors, environmental factors and, ageing. People with an affected parent have approximately twice the risk of getting the disease than someone whose parents do not have AMD.

Therefore, it’s advised to have an annual check-up with your optometrist and to consider getting new genetic testing done for a better outcome, since vision is saved with early detection and intervention.

Genetic testing can help with the following:

– It will identify if the individual has the gene responsible for getting the disease in the future.

– Help the individuals with AMD set up a proper check-up regimen with their eye care professional based on whether the results show if their disease will progress to wet.

– Helps AMD patients decipher whether they can have an AREDS supplement with zinc; since the presence of a certain gene can react negatively with zinc; thus may cause the onset of Alzheimer’s.

– If the result for genetic testing is positive, you can take required precautions for your children and others in the family, and adapt to a healthier diet accordingly.

– Genetic testing can help you identify ARMD in a timely manner so you can take the following measures to further prevent damage:

* Stop smoking

* Eat a diet rich in vegetables and fruits

* Eat fish twice a week, especially salmon, sardines, or mackerel

* Take vitamins if recommended by your doctor

Visit Dr. D’Orio Eyecare today and get a genetic test done for ARMD. Call us now at 416 661 5555 and we will be happy to assist you.



March 25, 2019 by eyecare0

Many people consider sustaining good physical health as one as their top priorities but they seem to forget the importance of maintaining good eye care. They visit their doctors but never seem to visit their optometrists. They take care of their bodies by maintaining a healthy lifestyle but make their eyes worse by using electronics every day. This is an issue because your eyesight is one of your most important senses: 80% of what humans perceive comes through our sense of sight. That means that it is very important to maintain good eye care by visiting your eye doctor at least once a year.

The Reasons to Prioritize your Eye Health

Visiting your optometrist is a good precaution to take. Having your eyes checked by a specialist is very beneficial because they will be able to catch problems in the early stages making it easier to treat. Catching the problem before it gets worse can prevent vision loss. There are many different types of eye diseases such as glaucoma, cataracts, and macular degeneration. Many of these diseases can’t be diagnosed without a consultation from a professional because of their invisible symptoms. Around 80% of vision problems worldwide are avoidable, or even curable if detected early and treated with proper medical care. Going to your optometrists at least once a year can help you prevent possible diseases.

Going to an eye doctor is especially beneficial if you have children. Many kids today require eye care because of the constant use of electronics such as tablets, phones, tv, and many more that affect their eyesight. Visiting the optometrists can help track their eyes’ conditions and ensure that their eyes aren’t getting worse. Having healthy eyes is very important in children’s learning. Around 60% of children with learning difficulties have undetected vision problems. Classrooms also consist of a lot of visual learning from graphs, posters, to drawings where good eyesight is needed. Making an appointment to an optometrist wouldn’t hurt and it ensures that your child’s learning abilities aren’t affected.

Having good eyesight is very important in daily living. It is an essential function that people need to live their day-to-day lives. Your daily routines would differ when you have eyewear compared to people who don’t require any. It would be harder to do activities such as sports, riding roller coasters, and using sunglasses. There are many drawbacks to having to wear glasses so it’s better to get your eyes checked to prevent, identify, and treat common issues before your eye conditions worsen. Being one of our 5 senses, good vision is important to partake in society and makes it easier. You would have a better quality of life if you take care of your eyes.

Maintaining good eye care is very important and with visiting your eye doctor, it makes it even easier. Eye doctors are here to provide aid to you so that you can prevent, intervene, and care for any eye conditions. Eye diseases can be very silent, where it doesn’t have big symptoms but with the help of your optometrist, your eyes will be in good health. Now that you know the benefits of regularly going to your optometrist for eye exams, make sure to share this with everyone you know who needs this beneficial information and don’t forget to book your next appointment!


August 30, 2018 by eyecare0

We’re constantly surrounded by microbes that can eat our eyeballs, but that doesn’t usually happen unless you wear contact lenses.

Contacts are awesome, but anyone who’s worn them, knows that they can cause problems, like redness and eye pain. But the most serious problem is something called “Microbial Keratitis,” which is an infection of the cornea. The cornea is the clear layer that is considered the transparent window of the eyeball.  And if it gets infected it can sometimes lead to blindness. Lots of different germs can cause keratitis: bacteria, fungi, viruses like herpes, and even amoeba. The interesting thing is that the species of fungi, amoeba, and bacteria that cause the disease are actually found all over the place. Literally. For example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the most common keratitis-causing bacteria, is actually found in tap water and on the lettuce in your fridge! But if these bugs are so prevalent, why aren’t we constantly getting infections?

Great question. Well, because our eyes are really important for our survival, we’ve developed lightning quick defenses to kill most germs that land there. In fact, these defenses are so good that by studying the eye, scientists are starting to learn some secrets for keeping other parts of our body pathogen-free. The problem is that these super prevalent microbes are super prevalent because they’re awesome at adapting to new situations.

So when you trap them against your eye with a contact lens for hours on end, you could essentially be selecting for bugs that can survive this really harsh environment. The few that make it actually like it there and keep on replicating. To make matters worse, when you remove your lenses and leave them to soak, you may be selecting for bugs that can survive antimicrobial solutions, as well! Eventually, these superbugs might start eating their way through your cornea.

If you feel any discomfort in your eye, like if it feels like there’s something stuck in there even after you take out your lenses and that feeling just seems to get worse, keep those lenses out of your eyes and let your doctor know. If you wait too long, your body’s inflammatory response can kick in, which can cause its own damage. In fact, it’s sometimes the inflammation, and not the amoeba or bacteria, that finally causes blindness.

Keratitis only affects about 0.2% of people who wear contact lenses on an extended basis. But for those who get it, it can be extremely serious, so scientists are studying how to prevent it altogether. But in the meantime, if you’re a contact lens wearer, what can you do to prevent keratitis?

Well, it’s not foolproof, but wearing the type of lenses you throw out at the end of each day could help. And of course follow your doctor’s instructions.


Blog-4._Scleral-Lens-and-KeratoconusIn previous blogs we learned that dry eyes is a problem that affects many people. We also learned that a course of products can be used to relieve dry eyes. Lastly, the Blephex machine can easily get rid of the bacteria which produces exotoxins that stop the formation of healthy tears which ultimately cause dry eye.

In this final blog of our dry eye series we will focus on the Scleral Lens, which is very beneficial in combatting severe dry eye. This lens is larger and more rigid compared to the conventional contact lens. Its unique formation covers the entire cornea which prevent it from moving out of place when the wearer blinks. One of the most significant benefits of this specialized lens is its ability to combat dry eye. This is due to its unique shape, which creates extra space between the back of the contact lens and the cornea. This space which acts as a reservoir for saline solution is extremely important in preventing dry eye.

Another important benefit of the Scleral Lens is that it is helpful in treating people with a progressive eye disease called Keratoconus. Although this condition occurs mostly with young adults, it has been found in people of all ages. Keratoconus affects one or both eyes by thinning and weakening the cornea. This thinning makes it flimsy and creates a bulge or a cone shape. This irregular formation causes nearsightedness and irregular astigmatism to develop, and eventually without treatment, distorted blurred vision and glare and light sensitivity will occur. The unique shape of the Scleral lens accommodates the sufferers of Keratoconus by providing a uniform surface like that of a healthy normal cornea. Keratoconus is hereditary, so if a family member has it, you are advised to have your eyes checked out as soon as possible.

Scleral Lens technology is advancing rapidly and manufacturers are designing them to correct more vision problems than ever before. Our doctors at our Finch and St. Clair offices will be more than happy to explain the benefits of these lenses. Come in and inquire about the Scleral lens the next time you’re here for a visit.

North York Eye Clinic / Toronto /

Dr. Greg D’Orio is the patriarch of his family, working alongside his son Steven in their family trade. The elder D’Orio graduated from the University of Waterloo optometry program in 1980 and is in an organization raising money to fight cancer. He is also an Eucharistic minister at St. David’s Catholic Church and a member of the Knights of Columbus. He has volunteered in the Special Olympics, in addition to his regular visits to elderly patients in nursing homes and house calls. Over the years, Dr. D’Orio has established a practice that adheres to his dreams and goals; which is to fulfill his goal of helping and caring for people with eye related issues. Alongside his son, he hopes to continue helping those in need.